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Ultra LactoZyme-Dry

Animal Feed EnzymesAnimal Feed EnzymesAnimal Feed EnzymesAnimal Feed Enzymes

Increases Feed Conversion and Significantly Decreases Manure Odors in Pits and Lagoons

LactoZyme: Contains a combination of active saponins, sterol triterpine glycosides extracted from natural plant sources, combined with condensed lactobacillus fermentation solubles.

LactoZyme: Is an effective feed enhancer. Unlike others in that it is processed using a patented fermentation method with live lactobacillus acidophilus organisms with an in-situ process.

This results in a pre-digested source of highly available active ingredients that may be used to effectively control manure odors by using the animals own digestive system through increased assimilation of the feed ingredients, which results in substantially lowering undigested wastes ammonia and H2S gases in the final animal manures.

LactoZyme is economical and effective in preventing odors and increasing feed assimilation in dairy hog and poultry applications , in that it acts by increasing profits through improved feed conversion.

When LactoZyme is added to your feed mix at the recommended rates, it will result in a highly digestible, nutritious and palatable product with numerous benefits.

LactoZyme's ingredients are associated with improved livestock and poultry performance and are responsible for reducing up to 70% of ammonia and h2s gases - manure odors in animal housing, ponds, pits and lagoons.

When LactoZyme is used in your feeds, it may be used in combination with a BioZyme maintenance, direct manure and animal housing treatment program to prevent and virtually eliminate the balance of manure odor related problems, and recycle the waste into valuable soil nutrients. The BioZyme treated wastes would than provide you with a relatively odor free bio-active source of organic fertilizer, nutrients and organic matter, essential for plant growth and soil fertility.

General Use Rates: LactoZyme Dry: 150g to 300g /per/ton/total ration.

LactoZyme Liquid: Available for those who prefer to inject directly into the water line.

Safety: Non Hazardous: All ingredients contained in LactoZyme are classed food and feed grade.

Packaging (Dry):10, 20 and 100 kg. lined fiber drums.

    

Digestive Aid - SY Animal Feed Enzymes

Pure Seaweed Extract-Yucca Shidigera Extract-Live Active Yeast Culture

Digestive Aid - SY: Increases the utilization of all the ingredients in the complete feed ration and improves the overall health and performance of animals.

Helps to establish a favorable microflora resulting in improved feed utilization.

We have received numerous comments from our distributors and users, about the benefits of Digestive -Aid SY in:

Dairy applications where it helps to increase milk and protein and also reduces foot rot related problems

Lama, Camels and Sheep: Cleaner healthier coats, improves stamina and prevents gastro-intestinal disorders

Contains ingredients that have the ability to inhibit urea hydrolysis (urease activity) resulting in 40 to 50% reductions of ammonia gas production, in confinement operations.

Digestive Aid SY: May be used with premixes, base-mixes, complete feeds or as a top dressing in horses, livestock, pork, poultry, pets and sheep, as well as more exotic animals such as: camels, lamas, ostrich etc.

General Use Rates: 1 to 4 kg/ton/ or 3 to 30 grams/head/day/top dress

TYPICAL ANALYSIS Digestive Aid SY


Crude Protein........................................... 13.55% max.
Zinc (Zn).................................. 89.00 mg/kg max.(ppm)
Crude Fiber.............................................. 11.14% max.
Boron............................................... 35.00 mg/kg max.
Available Phosphoric Acid(P2O5).................... 0.77% max.
Barium.............................................. 42.50 mg/kg max.
Manganese (Mn)................................. 42.90 mg/kg max.
Soluble Potash (K2O).................................. 2.30% max.
Copper (Cu)...................................... 14.75 mg/kg max.
Salt (NACI)............................................... 5.10% max.
Iron (Fe)......................................... 550.00 mg/kg max.
Calcium (Ca)............................................. 2.67% max.
Magnesium (Mg)........................................ 0.87% max.
Potassium (K)........................................... 2.75% max.
Cobalt............................................... 8.50 mg/kg max.
Nitrogen................................................... 1.70% max.
Tin.................................................... 8.50 mg/kg max.
Sodium (Na).............................................. 3.42% max.
Nickel................................................ 4.25 mg/kg max.
Sulfure..................................................... 1.96% max.
Selenium (Se)..................................... 3.40 mg/kg max.
Chlorine................................................... 3.40% max.
Vanadium.......................................... 4.25 mg/kg max.
Phosphorus(P25)....................................... 0.52% max.
Titanium............................................ 5.10 mg/kg max.
Yucca Schidigera........................... 52550.00 mg/kg min.
Cadmium.................................................. 0.85 mg/kg.
Iodine (I)........................................ 680.10 mg/kg max.
Chromium.................................................. 0.85 mg/kg.
Beryllium................................................... 0.85 mg/kg.

PROTEIN AND AMINO ACIDS

Alanine............................................................................... 4.51
Lysine................................................................................ 4.97
Arginine.............................................................................. 7.30
Methionine.......................................................................... 0.85
Aspartic Acid....................................................................... 5.87
Phenylalinine....................................................................... 2.41
Cystine............................................................................... 0.12
Proline................................................................................ 2.21
Glycine............................................................................... 4.25
Serine................................................................................ 2.55
Glutamic Acid...................................................................... 8.50
Threonine........................................................................... 2.88
Histidine............................................................................. 1.51
Tryptophan......................................................................... 0.12
Isoleucine........................................................................... 2.93
Tryosine............................................................................. 1.27
Leucine.............................................................................. 4.70
Valine................................................................................ 3.70

VITAMINS

Thiamine(B1)........................................................................... 28.00
Riboflavin(B2)............................................................................ 8.00
Niacin(B3)............................................................................... 50.00
Pantothenic Acid(B4)................................................................ 10.00
Pyridoxine(B6)........................................................................... 2.00
Biotin(B8)................................................................................. 0.06
Vitamin C...................................................................... 1700.00 max.
Vitamin E........................................................................ 297.00 max.

Packaging: 10 kg (22+lbs) or 20 kg (44+lbs) plastic flip top resealable pails.

Golf Course Organic Fertilizers Click Here: New Poultry Enzyme Drinking Water Treatment feed additive designed to improve poultry and  turkey performance, disease resistance, feed conversion and odor control

Golf Course Organic Fertilizers Click Here: New Swine Enzyme Drinking Water Treatment feed additive designed to improve swine piglet grower finisher hog and sow performance, disease resistance, feed conversion and odor control   

Wholesale Volume Pricing Available for Feed Mills Dealers and Distributors

 Toll Free Order Desk: USA & Canada : 1-888-205-9957 

Download our Printable 2005 PDF Catalogues

USP Food Grade Enzymes Health Nutrition Products

New 2006 Enzymes for Poultry Livestock Manufacturers detailed information on our enzyme and microflora products used in animal feed applications,health  nutrition  supplements,  as well as food and beverage applications.

Yucca Schidigera Health Nutrition Products

New 2006 Yucca Schididigera extracts detailed information on our pure water soluble yucca products, used in animal feed applications, dietary supplements, food processing, beverage  foam stability.

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Educational Information / Research References

Antinutritive Factors in Wheat and Barley

Wheat, barley, triticale, rye, and oats contain relatively
high proportions of antinutritive carbohydrates known as nonstarch polysaccharides (NSPs). The intestinal viscosity caused by water-soluble NSPs dramatically reduces bird performance (Choct and Annison 1992b). The content of NSP in the diet is inversely related to the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of wheat (Annison 1991) and positively correlated with gut viscosity (Bedford et al. 1991; Bedford and Classen 1992). Gut viscosity is inversely related to nutrient utilization and bird performance (Bedford et al. 1991; Annison 1992; Bedford and Classen 1992). Choct and Annison (1992a) demonstrated that the concentration of soluble arabinoxylan in broiler diets is positively correlated with the relative depression in AME, nitrogen retention, feed-conversion efficiency, and weight gain. Wheat diets containing 4% arabinoxylans decreased digestibility of starch, protein, and lipids by 14.6, 18.7, and 25.8%, respectively. Differences in content and composition of NSPs among barley or wheat varieties are associated with differential effects of these cereals on poultry productivity. Barley varieties can be classified as having a "high" or "low" content of ß-glucan, which is responsible for significant differences in biological responses when barley-based diets are fed to poultry (Campbell et al. 1989). Similarly, researchers investigating wheat in Australia have identified "low-AME" wheats (energy value of <12 975 kJ/kg) (Mollah et al. 1983; Rogel et al. 1987; Choct and Annison 1990). Adding enzymes to wheat- and barley-based poultry feeds to hydrolyze NSPs and reduce the negative effects of antinutritive factors, minimize variability, and therefore improve ingredient value is now a commonplace practice.

Although consideration of the benefits of exogenous enzymes has focused mainly on cereals (wheat, barley, and corn), other dietary components should also be considered. For example, diets containing barley as the major cereal source will also typically contain wheat or rice by-products and plant-protein meals. To target only the barley component of the diet with a ß-glucanase is inappropriate: enzyme supplements should ideally contain adequate activities of xylanases, cellulases, and pectinases for secondary feed ingredients. In commercial situations, therefore, it is worth considering the practical value of using multienzyme complexes (targeting one feed) instead of substrate-specific enzymes (targeting one ingredient).

Responses to enzymes Boilers

As a result of endo-xylanase and ß-glucanase
supplementation, the long backbones of the arabinoxylans and ß-glucans are cleaved into shorter fragments, thereby reducing their viscosity (Gruppen et al. 1993). Supplementing broiler diets with combinations of xylanase and ß-glucanase minimizes the adverse effects of NSPs and improves the nutritive value of the diet (Campbell et al. 1989; Francesch et al. 1989; Helander and Inborr 1989; Wiedmer and Völker 1989; Jansson et al. 1990; Bedford et al. 1991; Benabdeljelil 1992; Brufau et al. 1993; Jeroch and Dänicke 1993; Schurz et al. 1993; Vukic Vranjes and Wenk 1993; Benabdeljelil and Arbaoui 1994; Broz and Perrin-Voltz 1994; Broz et al. 1994; Marquardt et al. 1994; Veldman and Vahl 1994; Allen et al. 1995; Almirall et al. 1995; Choct et al. 1995; Classen et al. 1995; Fuente et al. 1995; Juin et al. 1995; Klünter, Devaud et al. 1995; Klünter, Weber et al. 1995; Langhout and Schutte 1995; Mohammed 1995; Partridge and Wyatt 1995; Schutte et al. 1995; Van der Klis et al. 1995; Vukic Vranjes and Wenk 1995; Dunn 1996).

One of the main reasons for supplementing wheat- and barley-based poultry diets with enzymes is to increase the available energy content of the diet. Increased availability of carbohydrates for energy utilization is associated with increased energy digestibility (Partridge and Wyatt 1995; Van der Klis et al. 1995). The AME of wheat has been extensively studied and found to have a considerable range (9 500–16 640 kJ/kg) (Mollah et al. 1983; Rogel et al. 1987; Annison 1995; Choct et al. 1995; Ward 1995). Enzyme supplementation improves this range by enhancing carbohydrate digestibility, reducing gut viscosity, and improving fat utilization (Almirall et al. 1995). The improvements in AME resulting from enzyme supplementation are variable because of the variability in the NSP content of wheat. Classen et al. (1995), Schutte et al. (1995), and Van der Klis et al. (1995) reported improvements of 5–16, 3.1–4.5, and 4.5–12.4%, respectively, and in recent Australian trials, improvements of 3–30% were observed (unpublished data). The increase in AME with the use of enzymes is difficult to predict, as nutrient ratios, such as energy–protein, and other factors also play an important part in poultry-feed formulations. The AME value of wheat has been correlated with its content of water-soluble NSPs (Annison 1991), which in turn affects gut viscosity (Bedford et al. 1991). Unfortunately, NSP analyses are relatively lengthy processes, and in a commercial situation rapid testing of incoming grains is required. No chemical test or detectable physical characteristic can be used to rapidly predict the AME value of wheat or to estimate the improvements to be expected from the use of enzymes. This is part of the difficulty in trying to accurately estimate the energy content of wheat or barley in poultry feeds and compensate for the deficiency by adding enzymes.

The importance of energy compensation in feed formulation was demonstrated in a cost–benefit study in Australia in 1991 (unpublished data). A wheat-based diet was formulated with or without the 5% increase in AME value obtained with enzyme supplementation. Broiler growth, feed conversion, and AME improved because of the supplementation. Not compensating for the improvement in AME increased the calculated cost of supplemented feed. Nevertheless, as a result of improved growth and feed efficiency, the cost per kilogram broiler in the enzyme-treated group was 1.3% lower than that in the wheat-control group. Compensating for the additional energy further improved production characteristics and also reduced feed costs, giving a reduction in cost per kilogram broiler of 8.8% compared with the wheat control. Partridge and Wyatt (1995) cited similar benefits when allowances were made for the improvements in energy and amino acid digestibility. The problem facing the feed formulator is estimating the correct energy allowance for wheat-based diets. Typically, a conservative 5–6% upgrading of the AME of wheat is recommended for commercial situations. This allowance effectively improves the energy value of wheat to about 13800 kJ/kg in a least-cost matrix, bringing the value of a wheat–enzyme combination closer to that for maize and allowing the use of less supplementary energy. Amino acid adjustments may also be made, as enzyme supplementation also improves protein digestibility (Bedford et al. 1991; Partridge and Wyatt 1995). Typically, the digestibility of amino acids should be expected to increase by 10% with added enzymes (Bedford et al. 1991; Ward 1995).

A great deal of literature deals with broiler-growth and feed-conversion responses in wheat- and barley-based diets. The addition of barley to broiler feed has been considered impractical because of barley's limited energy value and high ß-glucan content, which impairs growth and feed efficiency and leads to a high incidence of wet or sticky droppings. Storing barley reduces but fails to eliminate the antinutritive effects of the ß-glucan (Brufau et al. 1993). Supplementary ß-glucanase has been shown to minimize the negative effects of barley ß-glucan (Wiedmer and Völker 1989; Jansson et al. 1990; Brufau et al. 1992; Brenes et al. 1993; Broz et al. 1994; Partridge and Wyatt 1995). Trials have shown that barley–enzyme combinations can result in broiler performances comparable to those attained with corn (Marquardt et al. 1994; Almirall et al. 1995; Fuente et al. 1995; Partridge and Wyatt 1995). The difficulties in predicting responses because of the variable content of ß-glucan in barley were highlighted by Almirall et al. (1995). When corn-based and barley-based broiler diets were compared, the feed-conversion efficiency of broilers fed barley plus enzymes was the same as that for broilers fed the corn diet. Daily gain was affected by the variety of barley: "low-viscosity" barley yielded values not significantly different from those obtained for chicks fed corn, but the gain with "high-viscosity" barley was 8.7% less.

Wheat is the most common cereal used in poultry feed in Australia, Canada, and the United Kingdom. A considerable amount of research has been done on broilers' responses to wheat-based diets. Commercial broiler feeds typically contain in excess of 60% wheat, and the inclusion of xylanase-based enzymes in these diets is now commonplace. Positive effects on AME, weight gain, feed conversion, protein digestibility, fat digestibility, and litter condition were observed when broiler diets containing a high proportion of wheat were supplemented with enzymes (Helander and Inborr 1989; Jansson et al. 1990; Graham and Harker 1991; McNab et al. 1993; Schurz et al. 1993; Veldman and Vahl 1994; Classen et al. 1995; Juin et al. 1995; Klünter, Weber et al. 1995; Langhout and Schutte 1995; Rajmane et al. 1995). The growth and feed-conversion efficiency obtained with wheat–enzyme combinations can exceed those obtained with corn-based diets (Juin et al. 1995; Marquardt et al. 1994; Partridge and Wyatt 1995). Partridge and Wyatt (1995) undertook a step-wise replacement of corn with wheat in broiler diets. Intestinal viscosity increased with only 20% dietary wheat, but production parameters were not significantly affected until the content of wheat exceeded 40%. At this and at the 60% wheat-replacement level, the feed-conversion efficiency and weight gain obtained with added enzymes exceeded those obtained with the corn control. Performance is directly related to the composition of the diet, and with the correct formulations, wheat and barley can be more valuable feed ingredients than corn.

Responses to enzyme supplementation depend on the bird's age, which is apparently related to both the type of gut microflora present and the physiology of the bird. Older birds, because of the enhanced fermentation capacity of the microflora in their intestines, have a greater capacity to deal with negative viscosity effects (Allen et al. 1995; Choct et al. 1995; Vukic Vranjes and Wenk 1995).

The dry-matter content of the litter of wheat- or barley-fed broilers is improved (reduced sticky droppings) by adding enzymes to their diets (Wiedmer and Völker 1989; Jansson et al. 1990; Mohammed 1995). The improved litter condition reduces ammonia buildup in sheds and reduces the incidence of hock burns and breast blisters. Also, birds fed high-barley or high-wheat diets have been shown to have elevated intestinal weight, which negatively affects the carcass yield. This negative effect is reduced after supplementation with the appropriate enzymes (Francesh et al. 1989; Jeroch and Dänicke 1993).

Replacing maize with wheat reduces the total xanthophyll content of the feed, thus reducing the pigmentation of the broiler. Combinations of supplementary xanthophylls are required in maize-based broiler diets to satisfy China's consumer demand for chickens with coloured skin (Bird 1994a and b). Therefore, these supplements must be used if maize is excluded from chickens' diets.

Laying Hens

The responses of laying hens to enzyme-supplemented feeds are also well documented. Typically, enzymes added to layer feed appear to have little effect on egg mass but improve feed efficiency (Benabdeljelil and Arbaoui 1994; Vukic Vranjes and Wenk 1995), energy utilization (Wyatt and Goodman 1993; Vukic Vranjes and Wenk 1995), and laying rate (Poultry International 1996). Wyatt and Goodman (1993) reported that corn-fed layers exhibited better feed efficiency than those fed enzyme-supplemented barley-based diets. Nevertheless, enzyme supplementation improved the utilization of barley diets. Increased energy utilization in laying hens appears to be due to microbial fermentation of solubilized NSPs (Vukic Vranjes and Wenk 1995) and the subsequently higher absorption of volatile fatty acids (Choct et al. 1995). Wet litter arising from the use of barley and newly harvested wheat can result in an increased incidence of dirty egg shells and in ammonia buildup in poultry barns. Adding enzymes to both wheat- and barley-based diets has been shown to reduce the moisture content of fecal matter in layers (Marquardt et al. 1994). This means that barley can effectively be used if diets are supplemented with the appropriate enzymes.

Egg-Yolk Pigmentation should also be considered if maize is excluded from the diet. Wheat and barley contain very low levels of xanthophylls; if these grains are fed to layers, the yolk will be practically colourless and consumers will reject them. The diets therefore need to be supplemented with dietary carotenoids. The quantities required are well documented because of the extensive use of wheat and barley in layer feeds (Bird 1994a and b). Pigments are fat-soluble compounds and are therefore less efficiently absorbed in the presence of highly viscous compounds such as those found in barley-based diets (Benabdeljelil and Arbaoui 1994; Poultry International 1996).

Ducks

Nutritionists often avoid using a high proportion of corn in duck feed because of the possibility of aflatoxin contamination. Wheat, barley, or rice products are feasible feed sources for meat and laying ducks. In two studies, in France and Germany (Roche, unpublished data), improvements in meat-duck daily gain (5.8 and 3.3%) and feed conversion (7 and 1.8%) and a reduction in litter moisture were obtained when enzymes were added to the diet. Improvements in live-weight gain reduced the growth period by 5 d for 3.65- and 3.5-kg ducks, which would allow significant savings in commercial duck production.

Synergy with Antibiotics

Researchers have observed a synergistic response to antibiotic and enzyme supplements in broiler feeds containing wheat (Schurz et al. 1993; Broz et al. 1994; Allen et al. 1995; Choct et al. 1995; Langhout and Schutte 1995; Pijsel 1996) and in those containing barley (Broz et al. 1994; Vukic Vranjes and Wenk 1995). Typically, weight-gain and feed-conversion responses are observed for each supplement, with a degree of nonadditive synergism. The importance of established gut microflora in the digestion of fibre is greater in older birds than in younger birds, with the positive effects of enzymes in layers appearing to require active microflora to degrade the NSP solubilized by enzyme action (Choct et al. 1995). The beneficial effects of enzymes in barley-fed layers can be eliminated by the addition of flavomycin, a compound that reduces the fermentative capability of gut microflora (Vukic Vranjes and Wenk 1995). Allen et al. (1995) reported that the inclusion of antibodies in the gut of broilers not only improved production parameters, including weight gain, but also increased the viscosity of digesta. This result is the opposite of that observed when enzymes are added to the diet. These data indicate that both high and low viscosities are associated with improved nutrient utilization. Presumably, enzymes and antibiotics have different modes of action and therefore increase nutrient utilization in a different manner.

Conclusion

The current and future shortfall in supplies of corn
will force nutritionists to consider alternative feed ingredients. The use of wheat and barley in poultry diets is not new, and the value of these ingredients has been improved by the use of enzyme supplements. Unfamiliarity with wheat and barley has limited their use as raw materials in poultry diets in Asia. Many of the nutritionists are trained in the use of traditional corn and soybean diets, and they often feel uncomfortable using an alternative cereal to make up 50–70% of a diet. The availability of commercial carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and the use of appropriate formulation techniques have made it feasible to use wheat and barley in poultry feeds. Adding carbohydrases to poultry diets has improved the nutritive value of some cereals and legumes, allowing for a reduction of the supplementary energy in the diet and the inclusion of higher proportions of less digestible cereals (rye) or more problematic ones (new barley or wheat). Advantages to poultry producers include improved weight gain, feed-conversion efficiency, and litter condition. Adding enzymes to these cereals has been shown to improve performance to levels at least as high as those obtained with corn-based diets. The unrestricted use of wheat or barley in poultry diets is therefore possible, with the amounts used depending on the supply and cost of the raw materials.

References

Allen, C.M.; Bedford, M.R.; McCracken, K.J. 1995. A synergistic response to enzyme and antibiotic supplementation of wheat-based diets for broilers. Proceedings, 10th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, 15–19 Oct, Antalya, Turkey. World's Poultry Science Association. pp. 369–370.

Almirall, M.; Francesch, M.; Perez-Venderell, A.M.; Brufau, J.; Esteve-Garcia, E. 1995. The differences in intestinal viscosity produced by barley and ß-glucanase alter digesta enzyme activities and ileal nutrient digestibilities more in broiler chicks than in cocks. Journal of Nutrition, 125, 947–955.

Annison, G. 1991. Relationship between the levels of soluble nonstarch polysaccharides and the apparent metabolizable energy of wheats assayed in broiler chickens. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 39, 1252–1256.

1992. Commercial supplementation of wheat-based diets raises ileal glycanase activities and improves apparent metabolisable energy, starch and pentosan digestibilities in broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 38(3), 105–121.

1995. Feed enzymes — proven and potential uses. Proceedings, Feed Ingredients Asia '95, 19–21 Sep, Singapore. pp. 109–120.

Bedford, M.R.; Classen, H.L. 1992. Reduction of intestinal viscosity through manipulation of dietary rye and pentosanase concentration is effected through changes in the carbohydrate composition of the intestinal aqueous phase and results in improved growth rate and food conversion efficiency of broiler chicks. Journal of Nutrition, 122, 560–569.

Bedford, M.R.; Classen, H.L.; Campbell, G.L. 1991. The effect of pelleting, salt and pentosanase on the viscosity of intestinal contents and the performance of broilers fed rye. Poultry Science, 70, 1571–1577.

Benabdeljelil, K. 1992. Improvement of barley utilization for layers: effects on hen performance and egg quality. Proceedings, 19th World's Poultry Congress, 20–24 Sep, Amsterdam, Netherlands. pp. 405–410.

Benabdeljelil, K.; Arbaoui, M.I. 1994. Effects of enzyme supplementation of barley based diets on hen performance and egg quality. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 48, 325–334.

Bird, J.N. 1994a. The impact of raw materials on poultry pigmentation. Proceedings, Feed Ingredients Asia '94, 18–24 Apr, Singapore. pp. 186–202.

1994b. The practical use of xanthophylls in wheat based poultry diets. Feed Grains Seminar, Singapore. Australian Wheat Board.

Brenes, A.; Guenter, W.; Marquardt, R.R.; Rotter, B.A. 1993. Effect of -glucanase/ pentosanase enzyme supplementation on the performance of chickens and laying hens fed wheat, barley, naked oats and rye diets. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 73, 941–951.

Broz, J.; Oldale, P.; Perrin-Voltz, A-H. 1994. Effects of Trichoderma viride enzyme complex in broiler chickens. Archiv für Geflügelkunde, 58, 130–134.

Broz, J.; Perrin-Voltz, A-H. 1994. Dose related efficacy of Trichoderma viride enzyme complex on performance of broiler chickens receiving pelleted feeds. Archiv für Geflügelkunde, 58, 182–185.

Brufau, J.; Francesch, M.; Legarda, J.E.; Perez-Vendrell, A.M.; Esteve-Garcia, E. 1992. The effect of an enzyme supplement on the apparent metabolisable energy of a wheat in broiler diets. Proceedings, 19th World's Poultry Congress, 20–24 Sep, Amsterdam, Netherlands. p. 452.

Brufau, J.; Francesch, M.; Perez-Vendrell, A.M.; Esteve-Garcia, E. 1993. Effects of post-harvest storage on nutritive value of barley in broilers. In Wenk, C.; Boessinger, M., ed., Enzymes in animal nutrition. Kartause Ittingen, Thurgau, Switzerland. pp. 125–128.

Campbell, G.L.; Rossnagel, B.G.; Classen, H.L.; Thacker, P.A. 1989. Genotypic and environmental differences in extract viscosity of barley and their relationship to its nutritive value for broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 226, 221–230.

Choct, M.; Annison, G. 1990. Anti-nutritive activity of wheat pentosans in broiler diets. British Poultry Science, 30, 811–821.

1992a. The inhibition of nutrient digestion by wheat pentosans. British Journal of Nutrition, 67, 123–132.

1992b. Anti-nutritive activity of wheat arabinoxylans: role of viscosity and gut microflora. British Poultry Science, 33, 821–834.

Choct, M.; Hughes, R.J.; Wang, J.; Bedford, M.R.; Morgan, A.J.; Annison, G. 1995. Feed enzymes eliminate the antinutritive effect of non-starch polysaccharides and modify fermentation in broilers. Proceedings of the Australian Poultry Science Symposium, 7, pp. 121–125.

Classen, H.L.; Scott, T.A.; Irish, G.; Hucl, P.; Swift, M.; Bedford, M.R. 1995. The relationship of chemical and physical measurements to the apparent metabolisable energy (AME) of wheat when fed to broiler chickens with and without a wheat enzyme source. In van Hartingsveldt, W.; Hessing, M.; van der Lugt, J.P.; Somers, W.A.C., ed., Proceedings of the Second European Symposium on Feed Enzymes, 25–27 Oct, Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands. TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute, Zeist, Netherlands. pp. 65–71.

Dunn, N. 1996. Combating the pentosans in cereals. World Poultry, 12(1), 24–25.

Elliott, I. 1996. Grain industry told to expand to meet needs. Feedstuffs, 18, 3.

Francesch, M.; Perez-Vendrell, A.; Roura, E.; Brufau, J. 1989. Utilisation of enzyme mixtures in high barley diets for broiler chicks. Improvement of non-productive parameters. Proceedings, 7th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, 19–21 Jun. p. 243.

Fuente, J.M.; Pérez de Ayala, P.; Villamide, M.J. 1995. Effect of dietary enzyme on the metabolisable energy of diets with increasing levels of barley fed to broilers at different ages. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 56, 45–53.

Graham, H.; Harker, A. 1991. Barley evaluated — new wheat/broiler feeding trials with enzyme supplement AVIZYME T. World Poultry, 9(11), 22.

Gruppen, H.; Kormelink, F.J.M.; Voragen, A.G.J. 1993. Differences in efficacy of xylanases in the breakdown of wheat flour arabinoxylans due to their mode of action. In Wenk, C.; Boessinger, M., ed., Enzymes in animal nutrition. Kartause Ittingen, Thurgau, Switzerland. pp. 276–280.

Helander, E.; Inborr, J. 1989. The effect of supplementary enzymes on some nutritionally important characteristics of wheat. Proceedings, 7th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, 19–21 Jun. pp. 246–247.

Jansson, L.; Elwinger, K.; Engstrom, B.; Fossum, O.; Telgof, B. 1990. Test of the efficacy of virginiamycin and dietary enzyme supplementation against necrotic enteritis disease in broilers. Proceedings, 8th European Poultry Conference, 25–28 Jun, Barcelona, Spain. pp. 556–559.

Jeroch, H.; Dänicke, S. 1993. Barley in poultry feeding. Proceedings, 9th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, 5–9 Sep, Jelenia Gora, Poland. World's Poultry Science Association. pp. 38–66.

Juin, H.; Lessire, J.M.; Guillot, J.F.; Larbier, M. 1995. Performance of xylanases on broilers fed with newly harvested wheat. In van Hartingsveldt, W.; Hessing, M.; van der Lugt, J.P.; Somers, W.A.C., ed., Proceedings of the Second European Symposium on Feed Enzymes, 25–27 Oct, Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands. TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute, Zeist, Netherlands. pp. 107–110.

Klünter, A-M.; Devaud, A.; Völker, L. 1995. Influence of liquid feed enzymes on performance and nutrient retention of broiler chickens fed a cereal diet. In van Hartingsveldt, W.; Hessing, M.; van der Lugt, J.P.; Somers, W.A.C., ed., Proceedings of the Second European Symposium on Feed Enzymes, 25–27 Oct, Noordwijkerhout, Netherlands. TNO Nutrition and Food Research Institute, Zeist, Netherlands. p. 193.

Klünter, A-M.; Weber, G.M.; Devaud, A.; Völker, L. 1995. Effect of Roxazyme G on growth performance of broiler chickens fed on different types of wheat based diets. Proceedings, 10th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, 15–19 Oct, Antalya, Turkey. World's Poultry Science Association. pp. 350–351.

Langhout, D.J.; Schutte, J.B. 1995. Effects of avilamycin and a xylanase enzyme preparation alone or in combination on broiler performance and ileal viscosity. Proceedings, 10th European Symposium on Poultry Nutrition, 15–19 Oct, Antalya, Turkey. World's Poultry Science Association. pp. 379–380.

Marquardt, R.R.; Boros, D.; Guenter, W.; Crow, G. 1994. The nutritive value of barley, rye, wheat and corn for young chicks as affected by use of a Trichoderma reesei enzyme preparation. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 45, 363–378.

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